An estimated 40% of Connecticut residents, close to 1.5 million people, live in homes served by on-site sewage systems. The vast majority of these sewage systems are conventional septic systems that are under the jurisdiction of the Local Directors of Health, and are the primary means of sewage disposal in rural and low density suburban areas. Septic systems also serve apartment buildings, schools, restaurants, and other commercial buildings in non-urban areas.
Septic systems that are properly designed, installed, and maintained provide a safe and efficient way of disposing domestic sewage. However, when sewage is discharged to antiquated or substandard sewage systems, such as cesspools, renovation of the wastewater by the soil may be incomplete. Sewage contains pathogens (disease causing organisms) and if improperly disposed may result in health hazards and nuisance conditions.